What Is Schizophrenia ?
Updated: Oct 11, 2022
Schizophrenia is a severe mental condition in which a person has aberrant perceptions of the world around them. Schizophrenia may be the cause of a variety of symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and profoundly disorganized thought and behavior, all of which interfere with everyday functioning and have the potential to be devastating.
Patients with schizophrenia need to get therapy for the rest of their lives. Early therapy has the potential to help bring symptoms under control and prevent more severe consequences from developing, as well as improve the prognosis for the patient's long-term prognosis.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is characterized by a wide variety of difficulties in thinking (cognition), acting (behavior), and feeling (emotions). Delusions, hallucinations, or disordered speech are common signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. These symptoms, together with a reduced capacity to function, may manifest in a variety of ways. Among the possible symptoms are:
Delusions. These are erroneous notions that have no foundation in the actual world. For instance, you may believe that you are being injured or harassed, specific gestures or words may be aimed at you, you may have remarkable abilities or renown, another person may be in love with you, or a great calamity may be about to take place. The majority of persons who have schizophrenia also suffer from delusions.
Hallucinations. In most cases, individuals report seeing or hearing things that simply do not exist. On the other hand, the individual with schizophrenia feels the power and intensity of a typical event to its fullest extent. Hearing voices is by far the most prevalent kind of hallucination, despite the fact that hallucinations may occur in any of the senses.
Thinking that is not ordered (speech). It is possible to infer chaotic thought based on how someone speaks. There is a possibility that effective communication may be hindered, and responses to inquiries may be wholly or partly unconnected. Rarely, communication may consist of stringing together words that have no sense and cannot be comprehended; this is frequently referred to as word salad.
Motor conduct that is either very chaotic or aberrant. This may manifest itself in a variety of ways, from acting childishly silly to being irrationally agitated. Because behavior is not centered on a purpose, it is difficult to complete activities. Behavior might include resistance to directions, posture that is improper or odd, a total lack of reaction, or activity that is both unnecessary and excessive.
Signs and symptoms of harm. This refers to a diminished or absent capacity to perform regularly in daily life. For instance, the individual may not practice proper personal hygiene or may give the impression of lacking emotion (for example, by not making eye contact, not changing facial expressions, or speaking in a monotone). Additionally, the individual may lose interest in day-to-day activities, withdraw socially, or be unable to find pleasure in their life.
The nature and intensity of symptoms may change over time, and there may be times when symptoms become worse and times when they get better. It's possible that certain symptoms will always be there.
Symptoms of schizophrenia often first appear in a man somewhere in his early to mid-20s. In women, the onset of symptoms is usually somewhere in their late 20s. It is very unusual for a youngster to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, and the diagnosis is almost unheard of in those older than 45 years old.
Early signs in teenagers
Teenagers may exhibit symptoms of schizophrenia that are comparable to those seen in adults; nevertheless, the disease may be more challenging to diagnose. This may be due, in part, to the fact that some of the early symptoms of schizophrenia in teens are also frequent for what is considered to be normal growth throughout the teen years. Some examples of these symptoms include the following:
Isolation from one's own family and friends
A decline in one's academic performance at school
irritability as well as a melancholy state of mind
Insufficient drive or motivation
In addition, the use of drugs for recreational purposes, such as marijuana, methamphetamines, or LSD, may sometimes create signs and symptoms that are comparable.
Compared to the symptoms of schizophrenia seen in adults, those seen in teenagers may be:
Having a lower propensity to suffer from delusions
More prone to have hallucinations of the eyes
When should one go to the doctor?
People who are affected by schizophrenia often are unaware that their challenges are the result of a mental disease that calls for medical intervention. Therefore, it is often up to their family or friends to get them some assistance.
Providing assistance to a person who may be suffering from schizophrenia
Have a conversation with the person about your worries if you believe someone you know may be exhibiting signs of schizophrenia. You can't compel someone to seek professional care, but you can encourage and support them, and you can help a loved one locate a skilled mental health expert or medical practitioner.
Your loved one needs to be evaluated by a mental health professional if they are a threat to themselves or others, or if they are unable to provide for their own basic needs such as food, clothing, or shelter. If this is the case, you may need to contact emergency services such as 911 or other emergency responders for assistance.
There are circumstances in which immediate hospitalization could be required. Different states have different laws regarding involuntary commitment for the purpose of receiving treatment for mental illness. For further information, you may get in touch with the local police departments or community mental health services in your region.
Behaviors and thoughts related to suicide
People who have schizophrenia are more likely to have suicidal thoughts and act on such impulses. Make sure that someone remains with the individual if you have a loved one who has attempted suicide or is at risk of doing so in the near future. Please dial 911 or your area's emergency number as soon as possible. Alternately, if you believe you can get the individual to the emergency department of the closest hospital safely, do so.